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Electric (electronic) shower: design, principle of operation, malfunctions

We will learn about the design of an electric (electronic) shower, about its common malfunctions and their repair.

The technologies of the modern world make themselves felt really. If more recently society used a regular shower for washing, powered by a centralized hot / cold water supply, now the situation is different. Increasingly, solutions are noted to install an electric (electronic) shower, both in a residential building and in a country house or in other places of domestic use.

Electric shower technology

  • Typical electric (electronic) shower model
  • Basic electronic (electrical) shower circuit
  • Common malfunctions of electric showers
  • Electric (electronic) shower solenoid and malfunction
  • Electric shower and thermostat faults
  • Electric shower and pressure switch faults
  • Control module micro-switches malfunctions
  • Electric shower heating elements and typical malfunctions

And such a decision is quite understandable when it comes to savings or the limited possibilities of using a full-fledged centralized water supply. What is the new invention of the century and how does it work? Let’s try to evaluate the technology of the electronic shower and, along the way, note the vital details.

Typical electric (electronic) shower model

Let’s start by looking at the mechanical, electrical and electronic components of a modern body wash. In principle, the typical design of an electric (electronic) shower looks quite simple when compared, say, with the same home computer, washing machine or panel TV.

Electric (electronic) shower: design, principle of operation, malfunctions
Electric (electronic) shower: 1 – thermal protection; 2 – heating tank (copper); 3 – electronic control module; 4 – selector for power selection 7.2 (9.6) kW; 5 – temperature sensor; 6 – wiring block; 7 – water flow sensor; 8 – hot water outlet; 9 – cold water inlet

The functioning of this type of structure is as follows:

  • When the user starts the shower by pressing the “Stop / Start” control button located on the control module housing, voltage is applied to the flow control valve. Accordingly, the valve opens, water is injected into the system.
  • Provided there is sufficient supply water pressure, the pressure switch will connect the heating element (s) of the heat exchanger. The process of heating the water passing through the heat exchanger of the electronic shower begins.
  • By controlling the water flow through the heating element, the temperature of the water leaving the system is regulated. A decrease in water consumption increases the temperature, given the longer contact time of the stream with the heating element of the electric shower. An increase in water flow will correspondingly lower the temperature.

It should be noted that the temperature of the incoming water changes during the year from 5 ° C in winter to 20 ° C in summer. Of course, these changes affect the outlet temperature of the shower depending on the season. For the user, these changes turn into the fact that, for example, in winter, you have to move the pointer of the heating switch knob to the red sector.

Some electric (electronic) shower models support high and low water temperature control settings. This functionality of an electric (electronic) shower is usually achieved by using only one heating element instead of two.

Basic electronic (electrical) shower circuit

In fact, the design of an electric shower is divided into two separate schemes:

  1. Low power circuit (small diameter wires) that controls a solenoid valve to start the flow of water into the device.
  2. A high power circuit (large diameter wires) that controls the heating elements of the heat exchanger and is connected at normal water pressure.

Meanwhile, for each specific model of an electric (electronic) shower, an individual electrical (electronic) circuit can be used. This point should be taken into account when troubleshooting the system or at the time of installation / dismantling of the structure.

Common malfunctions of electric showers

Below is a wiring diagram for the shower module that illustrates how the neon Start / Stop lights are connected when the Stop / Start switch is turned on.

Electric (electronic) shower: design, principle of operation, malfunctions

Schematic diagram of an electronic shower: 1 – high power heating element; 2 – low power heating element; 3 – thermostat; 4 – water flow sensor; 5 – pressure switches; 6 – power setting switch; 7 – stop / start button; 8 – terminal; 9 – automatic switch of the heat exchanger; 10 – solenoid; H – zero; Ф – phase

If the electric (electronic) shower module does not turn on, as evidenced by the lack of glow of neon lamps, potential reasons for the inoperability of the device may be:

  • lack of electricity to power the shower. Check fuses, circuit breakers, insulation protection;
  • the front housing cover of the shower module is not correctly installed during installation, which triggers the micro-protection switch.
  • the micro-switch “seal” of the housing cover is faulty directly.


Electric (electronic) shower solenoid and malfunction

There are many designs of solenoid valve assemblies, but nalmost all have similar designs and, as a rule, operate thanks to a removable coil. A part called a solenoid coil is a traditionally made winding with copper wire in order to obtain the effect of magnetism when an electric current is passed.

The magnetism effect attracts the metal pin present in the electric shower valve assembly. Accordingly, the valve opens and allows tap water to flow to the container of the shower module.

The solenoid coil is easily detached from the valve assembly. It is enough to insert a flat-blade screwdriver between the valve body and the top of the solenoid coil and gently push the parts apart.

Electric (electronic) shower: design, principle of operation, malfunctions
Important design details of an electric (electronic) shower are the solenoid and the electric coil that controls the movement of the solenoid valve. Both parts are collapsible and replaceable in case of failure

Common electrical malfunctionsMagnetic valves of electric showers are usually marked by the following points:

  • insufficient supply water pressure to open the valve. If the pressure of the tap water does not meet the required shower parameters, an involuntary leak is possible.
  • Damaged valve diaphragm causing water leakage. Even if the electronic shower is turned off, cold water continues to flow through the shower head. Replace the solenoid valve (solenoid).
  • failure of the solenoid coil, which leads to deactivation of the valve piston and the absence of water at the outlet of the shower head. It is necessary to replace the solenoid coil or install a new solenoid valve assembly.


Electric shower and thermostat faults

One of the important design details of the heat exchanger is an electronic switch (thermal shutdown sensor). This device measures the temperature of the water inside the heat exchanger and if overheating is detected, the power supply to the heating elements is interrupted. In essence, it protects the user from the risk of burns.

Electric (electronic) shower: design, principle of operation, malfunctions
This is what one of the sensor options looks like, designed to provide the function of protecting the user from burns for the design of an electric (electronic) shower.

Under normal circumstances, the thermostat can be turned off / on repeatedly if the incoming water temperature is low and the selected heating setting is too high. There is nothing unusual here. The thermostat just does its job, protects the user from possible burns.

Common malfunctions of the electric shower thermostat are usually noted:

  • the thermostat is out of order, therefore, there is an open circuit in the circuit of the heating elements, which leads to the lack of hot water.
  • accidental disconnection and subsequent switching on of cold water led to a breakdown of the device.

In both cases, the protection device can be checked using an electronic (pointer) multimeter. In extreme cases (which is not recommended), if there is no measuring device at hand, you can short-circuit the thermostat circuit with a jumper, but only for testing. Do not use an electric (electronic) shower if the thermal protection is not working.

Electric shower and pressure switch faults

The pressure switch of an electronic shower is essentially a micro-switch capable of withstanding high currents. Such devices are switched on mechanically, provided sufficient water pressure is detected entering the shower system. A cutaway view of a common micro-switch is shown below to better represent the system:

Electric (electronic) shower: design, principle of operation, malfunctions
Micro switch device commonly used in electronic shower construction. As you can see, this is a simple mechanical push action switch

Typically, electronic shower circuits contain two switches (double version) of this type to control the power supply of the two heating elements of the system heat exchanger. The mechanism that actually operates these switches switches the modes “hot”, “medium”, “cold”, which are marked on the front panel of the electronic module housing.

Control module micro-switches malfunctions

Among the malfunctions of this type of component parts, the following points are usually noted:

  • the operation of the mechanical pressure device is broken. Check the free movement of the mechanical arm. If wedge or partial blockage is noted, replace the micro switch.
  • make sure the temperature switch selector is in the “heating” position and the appropriate mechanical device controls both microswitches.
  • check the movement of the selector in conjunction with the pressure switch and the orientation relative to the located micro switches.
  • remove the pressure switch from the mountings and manually activate the micro-switches several times. This procedure often corrects partial jamming, but it is best to replace it.


Electric shower heating elements and typical malfunctions

An obvious point is a malfunction of the heating element, this is an open circuit and a lack of electric current conduction, which is accompanied by a lack of water heating.

The options here are limited only by replacing the faulty heater with a known good one. However, for such work, you will have to dismantle the capacity of the heat exchanger. Before dismantling, it is recommended to check the heating element for integrity with an electronic device – a tester.

It should be noted: heating elements (heating elements) are expensive products. Therefore, it seems logical to completely replace the shower module if the heat exchanger heaters are out of order. In fact, the costs will be the same. published by econet.ru

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If you have any questions on this topic, ask the specialists and readers of our project here.

PS And remember, just by changing your consumption – together we are changing the world! © econet


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