A house is considered autonomous if, in the presence of all types of communications, it is not connected to centralized electric and gas networks, water supply and sewerage systems.
Such houses are built at a distance from centralized supply networks or to save money. At the same time, the owners do not sacrifice their comfort.
Engineering systems of autonomous houses
- Power supply
- Water pipes
The search for alternative sources of power supply for people is most often made by the remote location from power lines. I must say that there will be savings in this case, but not immediately – equipment for autonomous electricity generation is not cheap. Here are the most popular sources of autonomous power supply today:
1. A liquid fuel generator is capable of providing electricity to a medium-sized private house, and when connected to a boiler and a pump, it will provide the house with heating and running water. However, such power requires fuel, which is becoming more expensive every month. Also, due to the high noise level, the operation of the generator indoors is difficult. The cost of the generator varies from 10,000 to 50,000 rubles. depending on output power and other characteristics. You can calculate the required power of the power supply using the following formula: add a margin of 15-20% to the total power of all consumers.
A small house with electricity can provide a gasoline generator with a capacity of up to 2 kW. More serious buildings will need a diesel generator with a capacity of up to 30 kW. If the former is most often chosen for buildings that have an irregularly operating central power supply, then the latter are best suited for an autonomous house. Gasoline generators are designed to run up to 3000 hours. Diesel generators last much longer, but to run smoothly every 100 hours you need to run them at full speed
2. Solar panels, the package includes: panels, batteries, controller, inverter, connector and cables. However, the cost of the number of panels sufficient to provide the house with energy starts from 40,000 rubles.
3. Wind power plant. This equipment is also very expensive – the cost of the cheapest models starts from 60,000 rubles. The efficiency of the wind turbines will depend on the size of the blades and the wind speed. Therefore, in calm areas (for example, in a ring of hills) they will be useless. To provide electricity to a full-fledged residential building, you need a device that produces at least 20 kW. The issue of installing a wind turbine should be resolved with neighbors and with supervisory authorities.
4. A mini hydroelectric power plant is a good option for home owners with a nearby river or at least a stream. You will have to invest a lot – the price of the cheapest devices, sufficient to provide a home, starts from 100,000 rubles.
For a comfortable stay in a country house, you need a constant source of gas. If only a tile is needed from gas equipment, then a cylinder refilled every few months is sufficient. For the arrangement of heating, special large tanks will be needed – gas tanks filled with a mixture of butane and propane. The required device size depends on the area to be heated.
The main disadvantage of gas holders, in addition to their high cost, is the impossibility of their independent installation. All installation work is carried out only with the permission of the regional gas administration by specialists from either state or certified companies.
The installation of the gas holder is carried out as follows. For a gas tank, a hole of a certain size is dug and a metal base is mounted. After that, the tank itself is placed on it. A trench is dug to the house from the gas tank and a highway is laid. The tests and the first start-up of the system are carried out in the presence of a representative of Rostekhnadzor.
For a heating device in an autonomous house, you will need the following units and assemblies:
• Boiler. Electrical devices can be used if there is a power source of sufficient power – it is for the operation of such a boiler that most of the generated energy will go. Gas boilers are connected to a gas holder. There are also solid fuel boilers operating on wood, coal, etc.
• Heating batteries. The best in terms of their characteristics and reliability are bimetallic radiators, but for the sake of economy, you can use less durable aluminum batteries.
• Highways. For the arrangement of heating, metal-plastic, metal or polypropylene pipes are used.
• Expansion tank. It is installed next to a heating boiler or in the attic of a house.
• Circulation pump. They are mounted not far from the boiler on the return pipe; a cleaning filter is placed next to it.
• Security group. Essential to insure against excessive pressure build-up and to minimize the risk of air pollution.
There are two types of boilers – single-circuit and double-circuit. The latter will cost more, but will provide the entire house with not only heat, but also hot water.
The basis of the water supply in an autonomous house is a well. Experts recommend pre-ordering geodetic surveys on the territory of the site. This will significantly save money, since only professionals can accurately determine the best place to drill.
The cost of the work depends on the depth of the water and is about 2,000 rubles. for 1 m. The water pipe from the well is brought to the house through a specially dug trench at a depth below the level of soil freezing. A line designed for warm water is connected to a double-circuit boiler.
It is more difficult to solve the issue of sewage. To install it, you first need to mount the central riser, then dig a hole at a distance of 10-15 m from the house and install a septic tank. A trench is dug from the house to the septic tank at a depth of 1.5-2 m with an inclination of at least 3 cm per 1 running meter. m. After that, it is necessary to cover the bottom of the trench with crushed stone and lay metal-plastic or polypropylene pipes. Sewerage wiring inside the house must be done in accordance with the accepted standards.
Biogas is classified as an environmentally friendly fuel. Its characteristics are similar to natural gas, but it is not extracted from the ground, but by fermentation of biomass. The technology of biogas production can be presented as follows: in a special tank called a bioreactor, the process of fermentation and processing of biomass takes place. As a result of this process, a mixture of gases is released, consisting of 60% of methane, 35% of carbon dioxide, 5% of other gaseous substances, among which there is hydrogen sulfide.
The resulting gas is constantly withdrawn from the bioreactor and, after purification, is used for economic purposes. Recycled waste, which has become high-quality fertilizers, is periodically removed from the bioreactor and transported to the fields. If large farmers can afford to buy ready-made biogas plants assembled at the factory, then less powerful plants operating on the same principle can be assembled on their own from available materials. But first you need to understand what size, and most importantly – what type of installation you need.
There are only two types of installations, as well as types of biomass fermentation: with air access (aerobic) and without air access (anaerobic). During aerobic fermentation, during the decay of organic substances, hydrogen is oxidized to water, and carbon to carbon dioxide. At the same time, a large amount of energy is released in the form of heat: the fermenting mass is very hot. During anaerobic fermentation, 60-70% of the carbon goes into methane, and the rest goes into hydrogen, free nitrogen and carbon dioxide. A standard gas burner is sufficient to burn methane.
Aerobic energy is much easier than anaerobic. There is no need to build sealed fermentation chambers and constantly monitor the installation. Aerobic installations are called BTS (biothermal stations), anaerobic – BES (biogas or bioenergy). Any organic agricultural waste is suitable as raw material for fermentation. In winter, the BES can operate only in the southernmost regions of the country, since in the north, during this period, its heating will require more gas than it is capable of producing.
But the cold season can be successfully used as a time for collecting and loading the chamber with dry mass, so that with the onset of a warm time you do not have to mess around with starting the installation for a long time: you just fill the reactor with water or slurry – and after three to four days it will start producing its wonderful products.
The cost of biogas plants starts from 90,000 rubles. and it grows as their internal structure improves. The price of individual copies intended for use on farms reaches half a million. To supply heat and electricity to a small house, the cheapest will be enough. Please read the specifications carefully before purchasing and compare them to your requirements. published by econet.ru
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