Consider the instructions for building a light garden house on a metal frame.
It is difficult to imagine the maintenance of a garden with a vegetable garden without outbuildings. We offer instructions for the construction of a light garden house on a metal frame, which in summer will be a shelter from the scorching sun, and in winter – a shelter for garden equipment and tools.
Lightweight garden house on a metal frame
- Functions and tasks
- Planning and earthwork
- Foundation laying
- Assembling the frame
- Roof system
- External and internal cladding
Functions and tasks
Quite often, capital outbuildings are erected on a personal plot. For keeping animals or organizing a workshop, such a step is justified, but if you need a place for spending summer leisure, it would be reasonable to erect a light frame building.
The pavilion on a metal frame is ideal as a place for outdoor recreation. Moreover, in winter it can be used as a hangar for a walk-behind tractor and storage of various garden utensils.
The walls of such a building are thin and do not have insulation, which can be partly considered a plus. Due to the direct air exchange with the street, even on a hot summer day, the inside will remain cool, while in the cold season, good ventilation will relieve dampness.
Despite the lightness and simplicity of construction, such a building will last a long time and will require a minimum of effort to maintain. The pavilion is divided into two parts: one to a third of the total area with a bulk floor and the other with a boardwalk. In the first, it is planned to organize a technical room, in the second – a recreation area and a place for storing vegetables in winter.
Planning and earthwork
A building on a metal frame has elastic properties and can tolerate mechanical vibrations harmlessly. Therefore, even on heaving soils, a concrete tape with high deformability will be the best base option.
To provide the foundation with diagonal stiffness, you will need to tie the perimeter with two internal struts. The first is located under the partition that separates the living area from the storage. For example, with a total size of the foundation of 3×6 m, the spacer divides the long side into segments of 2 and 4 m. The second spacer is installed perpendicular to the first and divides the household part in two, which will facilitate the laying of the log and the installation of the boardwalk.
The cross-section of the tape is 25×25 cm, so about 1.6 m3 of concrete will be needed to fill such a foundation. This is a volume that you can cook on your own, even without a concrete mixer. First, you need to mark out a trench with stakes and a cord, which should be 10-15 cm wider than the tape on each side. The trench is shallow, about 20 cm, while 5–8 cm in height is occupied not by the tape itself, but by the bedding under it.
The bottom of the trench must be carefully planned using a hydrostatic level. In the simplest case, you can take a transparent silicone hose filled with water. In each corner of the foundation and at the edges of the spacers, sticks should be driven in, on which a common horizon is marked. Planning is best done with road gravel, but you can simply compact the soil tightly and cover with 3–5 cm thick sand.
You need a mold to fill the foundation. Since the tape is under little load, it is permissible to carry out pouring in stages with an interval of 2-3 days, moving the formwork. It is only important to pre-tie the reinforcement cage, which consists of 4 rods with a diameter of 8 mm with a periodic profile, assembled in a box with a side of 15 cm using square clamps. The connection at the corners should be performed using bent anchors, which are tied to the frame rods with an overlap of 40 cm.
For formwork, frames made of wooden beams are suitable, sheathed on one side with any available sheet material. The boards should be 25 cm high and installed with their upper edge at the general horizontal level. In the lower part, they are strengthened with stakes driven into the ground, the upper sides are tied together with wooden slats on self-tapping screws.
Correctly pour lightweight concrete tape like this:
- First, sprinkle the bottom with sand, tamp it and spread plastic wrap throughout the trench.
- Completely assemble the reinforcement cage, placing it on lining of large stones so that the reinforcement is covered on all sides with a layer of concrete 5 cm thick.
- Assemble the formwork or part of it by wrapping the film inside the sides.
- If the pouring is carried out in stages, the concrete should be placed in several passes so that gentle slopes 60–80 cm long are formed at the edges of the poured segment.
Be sure to install seven mortgages at the corners of the foundation and at the centers of intersection of the tape. These can be ordinary reinforcement rods bent at right angles, or pipe sections. The embeds are installed so that their protruding parts are located exactly at the intersection of the belt axes.
Assembling the frame
Further work can be carried out 5-7 days after the foundation is poured; to assemble the frame, concrete does not need to gain full strength. But you need to act carefully, not allowing weights to fall onto the tape, so as not to chip off the edges.
The load-bearing base of the walls consists of uprights and four rows of crossbeams. You can use any rolled metal, including welded from pieces. A channel, a corner or a profile pipe with a width of 40 mm and a height of 2.5–3 m is suitable for the racks. It is better to make lintels from materials with flat edges, which will facilitate the fastening of the sheathing.
The easiest way to assemble the frame is to first weld the posts with the upper and lower crossbars, forming two short walls. The crossbeams should be welded to the outside of the frame. The short walls are put in place and connected by two long beams, while the distance between the bottom and top of the racks must be the same.
Once the base is assembled, it needs to be reinforced by installing the remaining posts and adding spacers over the foundation lintels. Now you need to align the geometry. To do this, the upper outer corners of the frame should be connected with diagonal ties, after making sure that the lower and upper diagonals are equal. The final rigidity of the frame will be given by two rows of crossbars encircling it along the outer perimeter, as well as diagonal reinforcement inserts, which cross-to-cross connect the bottom and top of the adjacent racks.
It is recommended to fasten the lower strapping belt with an indent of 20 cm from the foundation, the upper one in a single horizontal plane. If the height of the racks has not been verified in advance, they can be cut after the frame is finally assembled. The two middle harness belts should divide the height of the rack into equal segments of 60-80 cm.
After assembling the frame, you need to upholster the slag from the welded seams, clean the metal with sandpaper, degrease and thoroughly cover with a primer and then alkyd enamel. Such a metal structure will serve for more than a dozen years.
The roof of the garden house should be gable with a slope of 30–45 °, which contributes to the independent descent of snow masses. In regions with a large amount of precipitation, an increased snow load can lead to deformation of the wall frame, therefore, they should be reinforced, for example, with additional vertical corners and a powerful crossbar covering the walls around the perimeter.
The roof frame consists of trusses, including two inclined rafter legs, converging over the central partition of the building. From the bottom of the legs, it is imperative to connect with a tightening and support the ridge with a rafter stand. For the manufacture of trusses, edged boards with a section of 25×120 mm are suitable, provided that the trusses are installed in increments of at least 1 m.
When assembling the trusses, it is necessary to provide a roof overhang on the slopes of at least 40 cm and at least 20 cm above the gables. Legs with ties can be overlapped, with the connection point directly above the wall. Do not use black self-tapping screws for connection, it is better to take ordinary nails.
Before installing the rafters, you need to fix the crossbars from boards 50x150mm to the edge on the racks of the short walls, placing them on the inside. In places where the rafters rest on the crossbars, the ends of the rafter legs should be cut to a depth of 40–50 mm, forming a stop. Between themselves, the rafters are fastened with a crate made of unedged board, which is packed with an indent of 20-30 mm. All wooden elements of the roof support system should be treated with bioprotective impregnation and, if possible, painted.
External and internal cladding
Profiled sheet is ideal for wall cladding. The molding must be chosen so that the walls can be sewn up without horizontal joints. At the same time, the gables are sewn up separately with an overlap over the walls of about 20 cm.When choosing the length of the sheets for roofing, one must be guided by the condition that the overlap at the joints is not less than 30 cm.
Before covering the walls, you need to form openings for doors and windows. To do this, in the right places, you should cut out the crossbeams and form frames around the perimeter of the openings. For correct installation of the door from the hinge side, you need to install a massive post made of a steel corner or a profile pipe.
The cladding should be positioned at a distance of 15–20 mm from the foundation surface, forming a deformation gap. If the gap needs to be closed, an ordinary roofing ridge should be placed under the bottom edge of the profiled sheet, which is attached to the tape with dowels with a cap.
Before sheathing the roof, it is recommended to install waterproofing on top of the sheathing. Roofing material is suitable, which is rolled out in horizontal sheets, starting from the bottom of the slope with an overlap of 10 cm. The roof is covered with a profiled sheet, which is protected on the ridge by a roofing strip, the ends can be left open.
Inside, the garden house can be left completely unfinished by erecting only a partition separating the pantry from the recreation area. However, if you plan to store vegetables in the change house in winter, it is better to sheathe the room from the inside with a wooden lath and chipboards. Even such a simple lining will be enough to maintain a positive temperature inside due to one small potbelly stove.
The floors in both rooms are very simple. In the technical area, the top layer of soil must be removed and backfilled with gravel or expanded clay. In the household part, a floor is made on logs – bars of 75×75 mm, laid across the foundation lintel, and a flooring of inch planks. To avoid the formation of dampness in the underground, a gap of about 10–15 mm should be left along the contour, and the soil should be sprinkled with slaked lime. published by econet.ru
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