The problem of water disposal is no less important than the problem of providing the site with water, with the difference that, in addition to the wastewater generated as a result of our life, there are other sources.
If you do not take care of the timely drainage of all types of water, you can get a whole “bunch” of negative phenomena.
Water disposal from the site
- Gutter system
- Storm sewer
- Drainage system
- Homemade or professional approach
Especially when the soil is clayey and practically does not absorb, and the allotment is located in a lowland, water can stand on the site from early spring to late autumn. But even under more favorable conditions, excess moisture is fraught with problems with the foundations of the house and other buildings and soils. And in order to prevent the foundation from getting wet and the site swamping, there are special engineering systems, which will be discussed in the material.
Usually, in materials on drainage and drainage of water from the site, it is the soil drainage that is considered – the storm sewer and, directly, the drainage system. But if we take into account that from the roof of a house with an average area of 50 m³ per year flows, and in rainy regions and three times more, it makes sense to include a drainage system in this complex. And it is not entirely correct to consider storm sewers separately from the gutters, since they are interconnected. Whether the entire water disposal complex will be needed or whether it will be possible to do with “little blood” depends on the following conditions:
- type of soil;
- site location;
- ground water level;
- climatic zone;
- characteristics of buildings.
On permeable soils with a low GWL and a small or average annual precipitation, full drainage is usually not required – a drainage system and storm sewer are enough.
The drainage system is designed to collect precipitation and melt water from the roofs of buildings – it protects the facade and base from waterlogging and further destruction. There are two types of gutter systems:
- Hidden (internal) – are relevant on flat roofs, as well as on houses in a barn style, when the pitched roof smoothly passes into the walls, and there are no overhangs. Both the inlet funnels or trays and the outlet pipes are laid inside the structure. In barn houses, the risers are located in the corners, under the facing screen, in houses with flat roofs, it is also possible to locate drainpipes in partitions, columns or near walls.
- Outdoor – the most common type of drain, when all components are mounted outside. The external drainage system can be equipped with both suspended gutters, mounted on special fasteners under the slopes, and above-wall gutters, formed directly on the slopes. The second option is much less common.
According to the material of execution, metal (with and without polymer coating) and polymer drainage systems differ. The choice depends on both personal preferences and financial capabilities; in terms of technical and operational characteristics, metal and plastic in the middle price category are approximately the same. As for the cross-section of the gutters, it directly depends on the roof area:
- up to 30 m² – 80 mm;
- up to 50 m² – 90 mm;
- up to 125 m² – 100 m.
The configuration of the roof also matters – on complex shapes, the section should be larger, as in rainy regions. The optimal parameters of the drainage system can be calculated by the formula S = (W + H / 2) L, where: W is the length from the ridge to the end of the roof in the horizontal plane; H – slope height; L is the length of the slope.
Ideally, the drains collected by the drainage system should be fed into the storm sewer, although in practice, who immediately throws it into the ditch, if there is one and the distance allows, who is on the ground, away from home, and who collects and uses it in containers for household needs. …
The essence of the idea is that the barrel is buried in the ground and gutters from the roofs of the house and the bath are supplied to it. As a result, even after a little rain, I have a supply of clean and soft water. A primitive pump is installed in the barrel, which successfully pumps water.
Storm sewage is a surface system designed to collect and drain precipitation and melt water from the roofs of buildings and surface water from the site (if necessary). The system is completed with water intake funnels, trays (depth and width are calculated based on the volume of intercepted flow) and pipes, in some cases also receiving wells. Storm drainage prevents stagnation and waterlogging in areas with clay, impermeable soils. It is not intended for drainage and discharge of groundwater (capillary, groundwater, top water).
The amount of surface water often exceeds the amount of groundwater; do not underestimate the importance of storm sewers. Nobody canceled infiltration – except that puddles spoil the soil and the appearance of the site, being absorbed, the surface water is converted into underground water. And this entails an increase in the load on the drainage system, which was hardly taken into account in the original calculations.
One of the most common and gross mistakes is the combination of the storm and drainage system. When, instead of diverting water off-site or commuting through impermeable pipelines or surface ditches, water is directed into permeable drain pipes, or drain pipes are used for transit in an attempt to reduce volume. The result is disastrous.
Drainage, otherwise, a deep system, is designed to prevent flooding of the site – drainage of groundwater and lowering the level of groundwater to an acceptable value. The main indication for the installation of a drainage system, in addition to the drainage and storm water drainage, is impenetrable soil and high ground level, as well as the low-lying location of the site relative to others. Depending on the initial conditions, it may be required, both at the basement drainage, which protects the base from waterlogging, and drainage of the site as a whole.
All parameters of the drainage system are selected based on the results of geological and hydrological survey data. The system is completed with specialized drainage pipes laid in trenches with fractional dusting. They differ from transit ones by the presence of perforations through which the line absorbs moisture.
In addition to pipes, the system includes drainage wells: rotary, inspection (for maintenance) and collector (accumulation of water masses).
Collector wells are subdivided into hermetic, designed for periodic pumping, and absorption (filtering). The latter are in minimal demand, since water is not particularly absorbed into the watered soil and the well is constantly overflowing.
One of the main problems in suburban settlements is not so much the arrangement of the drainage system, but rather the difficulty with further drainage of water from the collectors.
One of the solutions is a pond device.
Homemade or professional approach
The device of drainage systems is possible both on its own, good, there are plenty of materials and instructions, and with the involvement of third-party performers. In most situations, it is quite possible to calculate and assemble the drainage system and lay storm sewers on your own, while with the drainage system it is somewhat more difficult. So that it doesn’t turn out that “we wanted the best, but it turned out as usual”, the consultants and moderators of the portal advise the following.
The analogy with medicine is most understandable – no one will call a doctor to measure the temperature or “sugar level”. Although I admit that someone is willing to pay money for these procedures. So the main part of developers will sort it out themselves and try to reduce costs. A rational financial approach is reasonable, justified, and worthy of respect. But it has become a favorite technique of commercial structures to play on this string and provide universal solutions under the guise of newly appeared materials – pipes, geotextiles, geocomposites.
These are, of course, the necessary materials, but they can be used, like traditional materials, with an understanding of the geology (hydrogeology) of the site, the relief of the territory (geodesy). But, probably, the most important thing is the level of responsibility (capital) of the structure or landscape that you are protecting.
So, it is worth undertaking self-dewatering under the following conditions:
- To understand the issue, you are ready to shovel a lot of information (read, view, calculate) and do not stick a shovel into the ground without fully studying the problem. Alterations are always more expensive.
- You understand the “nature” of water in your area, with a lack of funds for full-fledged exploration, you are ready to independently conduct research, carefully studying the sections of the forum on geology and hydrogeology.
- The site is located surrounded by neighbors, repeatedly tested and studied, and without a doubt – sandy soils, with a water confinement of 10 m and below.
- The actual groundwater level on your site in the spring and autumn seasons is not higher than 5-8 m from the planning surface.
- In the future, there are no plans to build roads, dams, filtration fields and the like in the district.
- You are building a house, utility block or bathhouse, or you drain water from the territory of the garden.
- You are building a basement with a basement in dense loams and clays without fractional inclusions that give rise to the water (sand lenses, gruss, etc.).
- You have figured out and understood how to make a wall (basement) drainage and a reverse fractional filter, it has been repeatedly “chewed” on the forum.
- You know for sure that there is no pressurized aquifer under the “foot” and at a distance of 1-2 m.
You should not rely only on your own strength if:
- We are talking about the construction of a basement at the ground level in the area of the basement marks.
- We are talking about the construction of a basement in the zone of pressurized groundwater.
- We are talking about the construction of a basement on the territory of active development by neighbors.
- There is no centralized sewerage and storm water drainage network.
- In the future, the construction of roads, basements, impervious barriers, absorption wells, fields and filtration trenches.
- The site is located in a floodplain area of an open drain (river, stream).
- The site is located in thalweg, a ravine.
- Geology is represented by technogenic deposits or the addition of aquifers.
- You do not plan to waste time and thoughtfully study the problem, hoping for a “magic wand” in the form of universal advice from several sentences.
Wastewater disposal is a set of measures that allows you to drain even the most difficult areas and “plant a garden when neighbors only walk in rubber boots.” And even having made a basic minimum in the form of a drain and storm sewer, you can really make your life much easier. Well, in especially difficult situations, one cannot do without a drainage system, but not “instead”, but “together”. published by econet.ru
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