It is necessary to prepare the sleigh from the summer, so let’s talk about the insulation of all elements of a country house.
Residents of city apartments receive a standard set of utilities, each month dutifully filling in and paying for the rations. The townspeople practically cannot influence these formidable figures, especially if they relate to heat supply. A completely different matter is a private country house, where the owner knows every corner and is able to radically insulate the dacha and reduce energy consumption, which means financial losses.
Warming of cottages
- Where does the heat go
- We insulate windows and doors
- Insulation of the front door
- External wall insulation
- How thick should the insulation be?
Where does the heat go
And what, in fact, serves as a criterion for warming a summer house? Without going deep into the problems of construction heating engineering, let’s name the main parameter. This is the thermal resistance of the enclosing surface (walls, windows, roof). It is expressed in tricky units: (m²x ° C) / W. Do not be confused by this dimension. The main thing is to know what this indicator should be equal to. In central Russia, this indicator for the outer walls is approximately equal to 3 (the professionals call it “three”). In Soviet times, the legendary “Khrushchevs” did not even reach one. We squandered heat energy on all sides, without looking back.
Let us “walk” with you around the country house and see where and how to insulate it or simply isolate it from the penetration of the outside cold in winter or scorching heat in summer. Let’s start literally without leaving home.
Here we will be helped by all-knowing industry statistics, which have accumulated experience in thermal engineering studies of buildings and fairly accurately reflects the balance of heat consumption in a detached house. So here:
- enclosing surfaces (walls) account for about 40% of losses,
- the floor and ceiling will be pulled together by another 40%,
- windows and doors will bring this balance to a round hundred with their 20%.
Internal insulation is reduced to the insulation of windows, window sills, front door and floor. But by no means walls: we will insulate them from the outside and nothing else.
We insulate windows and doors
Windows are well-known “wasteers” of heat. The same thermal index mentioned above for ordinary windows ranges from 0.2 to 0.3. You can, of course, supply fashionable three-chamber double-glazed windows (indicator = 0.7-0.8), but this is quite expensive and not everyone can afford it.
Fun fact: the thermal resistance of a modern window corresponds to the resistance of a wall of a reinforced concrete five-story building half a century ago. But you can get by with a little blood and keep the existing windows. Examine them carefully for hot spots. Found slots and cavities should be properly sealed from both the inner and outer sides of the frame.
Everyone knows the means for work here:
- silicone sealant,
- window insulation,
- polyurethane foam with a universal assembly gun.
With their help, it is easy to close gaps between frames and walls, as well as in the window frames themselves. Small gaps are easier to fill and paint, and “problem” cavities can be filled with polyurethane foam. And here there is an insulting opportunity to overdo it, because the foam after leaving the cylinder noticeably increases in volume. Therefore, it is recommended to “fill” the gaps by a third of their depth, no more.
The silicone sealant seems to have been specially created for the casement and glass in it. This wonderful paste-like composition guarantees high-quality glass fixing to the frame and window tightness.
The final chord of window work will be the laying of a profile seal – foam rubber or silicone. It is better to choose a material with a self-adhesive edge. Do not forget to thoroughly clean the insulated surface before laying and fixing it.
Having said about the windows, it is logical to mention the window sills. Often, over time, gaps form under them, and very significant ones. There are many reasons for this, the simplest is the drying of the originally wet wood. To seal the cracks, you will need the same materials as given in the paragraph above.
Is everything so “pink” with internal insulation? Unfortunately no. Yes, we “closed up” the cracks, but at the same time we blocked the natural ventilation channels of the room, which we used without thinking about it. You can read about how to create the necessary air exchange in the article Ventilation in the country: why is it needed and how to provide it.
Insulation of the front door
Entrance doors to many dachas are now steel. And if for criminals they still represent a barrier, then for the penetration of cold there is nothing nicer. After all, heat removal here occurs from 2 unprotected square meters of heat-conducting steel. How to be?
The best option in this case is to install an additional inner door (not an iron one), thereby building a semblance of a vestibule with an air cushion.
It also makes sense to insulate the front door by hanging 50 mm thermal insulation boards on it from the inside.
This will be a significant contribution to the conservation of thermal energy generated by the heating system of your summer house, whether it be a patriarchal wood-burning stove or a modern heat pump.
If the floor is not insulated at your dacha, then the steps described above for insulating doors and windows will not give noticeable advantages. However, floor insulation is a serious construction activity that does not come with little blood and requires a separate article. Its main principles are summarized in the material Insulation of a country house inside and out.
External wall insulation
The decisive measure to preserve heat in the house, and along the way and money in the pocket of its owner, will be external insulation of all facade walls. Moreover, it must be external.
Since the 90s, modern materials with previously unknown excellent heat-saving properties have appeared on the Russian construction markets. The main “players” here:
- mineral wool insulation,
- glass wool analogues.
And although the latter have better heat-saving indicators, it is risky to use them for insulating wall structures, since in the event of a fire these heat insulators release toxic chemical compounds.
Therefore, when choosing heaters for country houses, you should opt for non-combustible materials made of mineral wool or glass wool. The market offers 2 types of these materials: flexible mats and rigid boards of constant size. For wall insulation, choose the slab option.
How thick should the insulation be?
This primarily depends on the structural material of the walls and on its thickness. Here is just the time to remember about the level of insulation, which we talked about at the beginning of the article – about that necessary “three” that will provide your home with energy-saving well-being. So, for this, the thickness of the insulation must be at least 100 mm (2 layers) or 150 mm (3 layers.)
Such multi-layer “armor” can be trimmed with either plaster followed by painting, or piece cladding panels, including the widespread and elegant siding. You can read about your personal experience of this method of insulation and decoration in the article How to insulate a country house from the outside. published by econet.ru
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PS And remember, just by changing your consumption – together we are changing the world! © econet