It is not always possible to fit your dream home into the framework of one building technology without sacrificing something really important.
But this dilemma has a solution – it is necessary to build a combined house that combines several construction technologies at once. The desire to get the best from each of the building technologies seems quite obvious, and the more confusing is the situation with the relatively low prevalence of combined houses.
- Stone + wood
- Wood + frame
- Stone + stone
- Changed my mind, therefore combined
- Reconstruction of an old house
- Combined house as an opportunity to save
Perhaps this is due to construction companies and architects, who usually specialize in only one type of construction and are skeptical about technologies that they do not possess. places where there was at least some variety of building materials available.
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So, the striking representatives of the combined housing construction are alpine chalets, in which the first floor was stone, and the second was made of wood. Initially, the combination of these materials was made for purely practical purposes.
Firstly, due to the rugged relief inherent in the foothills of the Alps, houses were built on slopes and, thus, the walls of the basement from one side turned out to be buried in the ground, as a result of which no other materials available at that time and in that area , except for stone, was not suitable for their construction.
Secondly, the stone walls of the basement floor better tolerated contact with snow, which could be swept up to the walls of the chalet in huge volumes. Since the walls made of wild stone do not retain heat well, utility rooms were located on the first floor, while the second floor was built of wood, which is much better than stone capable of retaining heat in a house.
In pre-revolutionary Russia, combined houses were often built in provincial cities by merchants and bourgeoisie. In this case, the stone first floor increased the chances of the owners of the house to save the most valuable property in the event of fires, which were not uncommon in cities with dense wooden buildings. To protect against fires, even wooden walls were sometimes covered with a layer of plaster.
On the first stone floor, merchants placed shops and warehouses with goods, while they themselves lived on the second, wooden one. Of course, at present, the above reasons for the construction of combined houses have ceased to be relevant both because walls made of modern stone materials are mostly warmer than those of wood, and also because wood, thanks to modern fire and bio-protective coatings, has become resistant as to fire and to decay.
But there were many other reasons to build a combined house. In the first place among them, of course, is the reduction in construction costs. The first floor of a combined house can be either stone or wood. The main thing is that the bearing capacity of the walls is sufficient.
Simply put, if it is possible to build two-story houses from this material, then it is most likely suitable for the first floor of a combined house. The exact answer can only be given by a calculation for a specific project. For example, a stone floor can be built from such modern materials as aerated concrete, porous ceramics, arbolite, expanded clay concrete or from monolithic reinforced concrete in permanent formwork. A wooden floor can be made of logs or beams of natural moisture, as well as glued beams.
For the construction of a frame floor, most of the existing frame house building technologies are suitable: a classic frame, SIP panels, a frame made of LSTC and even a half-timbered house (subject to a stone first floor). Thirdly, thanks to protective impregnations, the tree has become less vulnerable to fire, which, in combination with the observance of fire-prevention distances between houses, minimizes the likelihood of a house catching fire in a nearby fire.
Stone + wood
Now the decision to build a combined house is most often made by fans of wooden housing construction, who, with all other things, want to facilitate the implementation of household and utility rooms with high humidity, as well as solve the problem of placing heating equipment. Bathroom, toilet, kitchen, laundry, sauna, boiler room and living room with fireplace are located on the ground floor with stone walls.
Bedrooms, nurseries and offices in this case are located on the second wooden floor. This solution allows you to kill several birds with one stone at once. Sleep and rest, as the longest period of stay in the house, fall on the wooden floor, which, in fact, is what fans of wooden house building advocate.
Building and finishing wet rooms on a floor with stone walls is much easier and cheaper, and the time spent in them is relatively short. Wooden walls are raised high above the ground and protected by eaves to keep moisture out and provide greater durability with less maintenance. Combined houses are also built to emulate the popular style of alpine chalets.
Wood + frame
De facto, the reluctance to make gables of logs or beams in wooden houses with an attic floor leads to the construction of a combined house. The first floor in such houses is made of wood, and the second is frame. This greatly simplifies the construction of a pitched roof in houses made of wood of natural moisture, because otherwise, for the period of shrinkage, a temporary roof would have to be made with subsequent replacement after shrinkage with a permanent or sliding structure of the rafter system, or a pediment using Post & Beam technology. It makes sense to pay attention to combined houses and for those who want in the future
live in a wooden house, but cannot wait several years for a house made of logs or a bar of natural moisture to shrink. In this case, the first floor can be populated immediately upon completion of construction, while the second wooden floor can be used in a year or two.
Stone + stone
Not only combinations of stone, wood and frame floors are appropriate, but also two floors from different materials belonging to the same group. For example, the first floor is built from bricks, and the second from aerated concrete. Or the first from the profiled timber, and the second from the rounded logs. Or the first of the SIP-panels, and the second in the classic frame technology. The combinations of materials and technologies can be very different, it all depends on the goals and motives that the owners of the house are guided by.
Changed my mind, therefore combined
The combined house may be the way out for those who, in the middle of construction, for some reason were disappointed in the originally chosen material. In order not to demolish or put up for sale an unfinished house, the second floor can be built from another material.
Reconstruction of an old house
Quite often, the house turns out to be combined due to the reconstruction of the old one, when another floor is built on top of a one-storey building made of stone or wood. An important point here is the correct determination of the bearing capacity of the walls of the first floor. An option is also possible when an extension is made to the old house from another wall material.
Combined house as an opportunity to save
Combined houses provide ample opportunities for building a house with characteristics that simultaneously correspond to two or three different types of housing construction. It is in this combination of the advantages of various wall materials that the main advantage of the combined house lies. In addition, combined houses make it possible to save money if there is a desire to use especially expensive wall materials.
For example, due to its properties, as well as the rarity or laboriousness of manufacturing, at the top of the rating of expensive wall materials are: dead pine, cedar, larch, stained wood (driftwood), as well as high-quality glued beams and large diameter logs. To spend material, which has a price of several tens of thousands of rubles per cubic meter, on utility rooms, to put it mildly, is irrational.
In addition, the special properties that the described materials possess are unlikely to be useful in utility rooms. The most inexpensive aerated concrete in the bathroom, boiler room and even the kitchen will outperform them in most of the characteristics that are important for such premises. Well, cedar or dead pine will show themselves optimally in bedrooms and nurseries.
A large house built entirely of cedar or dead pine would not only be significantly more expensive, but also worse in terms of its characteristics. Therefore, the construction of the first floor, for example, from aerated concrete, and the second from glued beams, allows not only to save well on construction, but also to get a house that combines the characteristics of stone and wood at once. published by econet.ru
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