This article will help someone who builds or renovates a house, the method of analysis of structures proposed by the author of the article will help to choose an option.
Many homeowners want to get the maximum usable floor space with a minimum building footprint. This is done either by increasing the number of storeys of the building, or by effectively using the attic. In summer cottage construction, it is the second option that is used most often.
- How the house will look
- Roof types
- Roof orientation
- Unconventional roof layout
How the house will look
If you walk through the old horticultural associations, it is easy to see that, despite the relative variety of buildings (both in size and in the materials used in the construction), the roofs over the houses are most often either simple gable or broken. Moreover, the predominance of one type or another is often due to the fact that the construction teams, who have mastered one technology, make it massive “in the zone of their actions.” And the summer residents themselves often adhered to the principle “like a neighbor’s.” In addition, before, many did not think about the appearance of a seasonal house – if only it was practical.
The days of such a utilitarian approach to buildings are passing. The current summer resident is seriously thinking about how his house will look like. But how to make it beautiful, practical and cheap? We will talk about this.
For example, consider three types of roofs (Figure 1):
- Simple gable roof (shaded red);
- Sloping roof (shaded in blue);
- Raised roof (shaded in green).
Let’s take the most common building dimensions in terms of 6 x 6 m, due to the standard length of lumber.
And since we are talking about the roof, we are more interested in the width of the structure.
To evaluate the results, we will use the provisions of SNiP 2.08.01-89 “Residential buildings”. Amendments No. 2 to this document (appendix 2, clause 6) contains the requirement: “When determining the area of the attic floor, the area of this room is taken into account with a height of 1.5 m to an inclined ceiling with an inclination of 30 ° to the horizon, 1.1 m – at 45 °, 0.5 m – at 60 ° and more.
At intermediate slope values, the height is determined by interpolation. The area of a room with a lower height should be taken into account in the total area with a factor of 0.7. In this case, the minimum wall height should be:
- 1.2 m with a ceiling tilt of 30 °,
- 0.8 m at 45 … 60 °,
- not limited – when tilted 60 ° or more.
Based on these requirements, we will accept the height of the walls for roof options No. 1 and No. 3 – 1.2 m, and the height of the ceilings (crossbar) – 2.2 m. The slope angles of the roof are:
- for roof No. 1 – 45 °,
- No. 2 – 60 ° and 30 °,
- No. 3 – 37.5 °.
For the convenience of comparing the areas of the surfaces to be finished (walls, inclined and ordinary ceilings, floors and roofs), we conventionally take the length (depth) of the premises of the building equal to 1.0 m.
The area of the pediment and the section of the attic (the latter is shaded in Fig. 1) will be determined without taking into account window, door and other openings. The section of lumber for roof trusses is assumed to be 50×150 mm. The calculation results are summarized in table. 1. From it you can immediately see the advantages and disadvantages of the taken roof options in terms of material consumption and labor costs.
Many will say that in the attic, according to options No. 1 and No. 3, it is impossible to install a wardrobe, a bookcase, etc. along the walls. This is true, but one should not forget that the main purpose of this floor is a recreation area. It is better to place a bedroom there, a nursery, and in large houses – a billiard room, an office and even bathrooms. A sloped ceiling not only does not interfere with placing a table, a bedside table or a sleeping place under it, but also gives the room a special charm. Note that in variants No. 1 and No. 3 the crossbar can be installed at different heights, which will lead only to a slight change in the area of the end walls. In variant # 2 (sloping roof), a change in the ceiling height will lead to changes in the proportions and appearance of the roof (Fig. 2 b, c).
Usually the ridge of the roof is placed along the long side of the building (Fig. 3 a, b, c) due to the fact that the structure is easier to block across than along. With a smaller span, a smaller beam is needed (of course, if there is no intermediate inner wall). In houses less than 6 m wide, the beam has to be increased altogether, since the standard length of sawn timber on sale is 6 m.
And if we have a small garden house or bathhouse, with dimensions of 5 x 6 or 4 x 6 m or even less? Hold the conditions, we get the following picture. In fig. 4.5 it is clearly seen how, given the initial conditions, the width of the attic room will change, and hence its convenience.
With a building width of 4.0 m or less, in a room under a roof built according to options No. 1 and No. 3, the ceiling height will also decrease, which will further aggravate the situation.
As a result, the premises will turn out to be narrow and long, like a carriage (see table 2, option 2, pos. 7, 8, 9).
Obviously, rooms with a width to length ratio in excess of 1: 2 are extremely inconvenient. When moving the racks of the U-shaped structures towards the outer walls, we will increase the angle of the side slopes of the sloping roof and, as a result, we will come to a simple two-story structure with the only difference that the walls of the second floor will be formed by the racks of the U-shaped roof structures (Fig. 2 c). Such an external structure often resembles a young toadstool.
Unconventional roof layout
Let’s make a reservation right away that we are talking about buildings whose dimensions in the plan exceed 3 x 4 m.With smaller dimensions, the attic floor is not made, since, minus the staircase, there is little left for the usable area (unless, of course, the stairs are taken out) … So, turn the roof 90 ° and place the ridge along the short wall (see Table 2).
Changing the direction of the roof slopes by 90 ° leads to an increase in the area of the attic. There are advantages from an economic point of view as well. A roof covering the structure across is more economical both in terms of labor and material consumption. At the same time, the roof forms a more advantageous architectural appearance of the building.
Of course, there are no comrades for taste and color. But before starting construction, it is worth asking yourself the question: how will it look like? And not only ask, but try to answer it. The easiest way is to draw roof options on tracing paper, and then attach them to the drawing of the building facade. Or simulate variations on a computer. The selected option can then be worked out in more detail. published by econet.ru
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