Modern thermal insulation materials significantly outperform wood in terms of their ability to retain heat, so many owners of wooden country houses try to insulate them, reducing their heating costs.
Houses made of logs or log cabins are the most comfortable, warm and environmentally friendly. Wooden walls keep heat well. It is often heard from construction experts that a log wall that is at least 24 cm thick has the same thermal conductivity property as brickwork 100 cm thick. And most people calm down on this.
Insulation of a wooden house
But such cases often occur when they purchased or built a house of logs, lived in it for a little, and when the first severe frosts came, they saw that the house was far from warm and was visible from all cracks. Then people begin to seriously think about starting to insulate their house, and the question arises: how to insulate a log house? What tools and materials are needed for this, what can be done and what is absolutely forbidden?
Insulation of a log house allows you to reduce heating costs and reduce heat loss. As you know, half of all heat loss falls on the outer walls.
For a moment, let’s remember how our ancestors insulated a log house. For insulation, our great-grandfathers used a variety of materials: from “hut” (straw mixed in clay) to plastering on wood shingles. This helped to get rid of drafts, and the “breathing” of the walls did not suffer. And the exterior of the house was neat and tidy. However, in the modern world there are many more effective insulation materials for creating a comfortable atmosphere in a log house. Before moving on to the process of insulation, you need to know what properties the materials with which buildings are insulated should have. Here are the main required properties of insulation materials:
- the insulation must have the same vapor permeability as that of a tree;
- the moisture resistance of the material must be high so that condensation does not accumulate and the wood does not rot;
- high-quality insulation must easily pass air;
- the insulation must be fireproof and protect the wall from the appearance of fungus;
- the heat-insulating material must have a free-flowing structure for a closer fit to the rounded wall and fill all the cracks.
At the present time, the assortment of various heaters is quite large. At the same time, only some of them are suitable for insulating a wooden building. Here they are:
Slag has a free-flowing structure, due to which it has the ability to fill all irregularities and cracks. The cost of slag or expanded clay is low.
They also insulate the house with sawdust. They are popular for their practicality, affordability and low cost.
A popular insulation is ecological wool, which, when insulated, seems to merge with the tree, therefore, excellent and high-quality insulation is obtained. This cotton wool is made from fibers obtained during the processing of waste paper.
Easy to work with mineral wool. It is resistant to fire and does not rot. Fungi and mold do not appear on it.
Styrofoam is a cheap insulation material. But it is not recommended for them to insulate wooden buildings, since it does not allow air and moisture to pass through, and the tree under it begins to rot.
It is better to insulate a log house in 1.5-2 years after the completion of construction in dry summer. Before starting work, the walls must be well treated with an antibacterial primer, preferably in two layers. The house is insulated from the outside using materials such as:
- installation of the lathing for the insulation is done in steps of 50-60 cm.
- wooden beams for the frame, which are selected depending on the width of the insulation;
- hydro-barrier and vapor barrier;
- material for facade decoration: plastic, siding, decorative stone, etc.;
- insulation material;
- various fasteners (screws, dowels, staples).
During preparation for insulation, it is important not only to choose a heater, but also the method of lining it. For example, construction professionals do not advise plastering the surface of the insulation because the tree under it will be covered with mold.
Technique and features of home insulation
At the very beginning, you need to take care of the sealing of the windows. All cracks and gaps that are in the window frame or next to it must be sealed with sealant. The entrance doors are also sealed.
Before you start insulating your house, you should insulate and seal the windows. In windy weather, bring your hand to it and slide it slowly from side to side. If you feel cold, then the insulation under the windowsill is broken. Take construction foam and fix the situation. Russian winters are often very frosty, and therefore the foundation of a house can also freeze completely. And if there is a basement or garage under the house, then its walls will begin to become covered with condensation and frost. From the foundation, the cold goes to the walls and to the floor, and from this the house becomes cold. Thus, in order to insulate the foundation to the maximum, it is necessary to dig a trench around the house to the base of the foundation. Next, the foundation should be treated with hydro-barrier mastic. And already on top of it, after drying, they are pasted over with ordinary foam. From above, the insulation is covered with a waterproofing film.
However, experts do not advise insulating the foundation with ordinary foam in those places where there is a very strong freezing of the soil. Simple foam has a weak structure, and it begins to burst from frost and pressure. In this case, professionals advise to insulate the foundation with extruded foam, which is resistant to frost and soil pressure. And it serves three times longer than ordinary polystyrene foam.
After the basement is insulated, the log house is treated with an anti-fungal soil and an antiseptic for wooden surfaces to protect the house from fire and mold. Then all gaps are sealed with polyurethane foam or silicone with antifungal properties. The next is the vapor barrier. By the way, steam insulation can be roofing material, aluminum foil, glassine, etc. Vapor barrier is necessary for ventilation of the walls of the house. If large logs were used for the felling, then this is very good and you should not worry. But if the walls are smooth, then a frame made of strips is stuffed on them, 1 meter apart, which are covered with a vapor barrier. The insulation itself is secured with staples or studs. Further, the lathing for the insulation takes place. To do this, take beams 100 mm wide and 50 mm thick. They are attached with an edge vertically to the wall, at a distance of 100-103 cm from each other. Insulation material is laid between the bars. Moreover, the insulation is placed in two layers of 50 mm. It should be laid from the bottom to the top.
From above, waterproofing is pulled over the insulation. The waterproofing film from the inside allows steam to pass through, and from the outside it does not allow moisture to leak. The hydro barrier is attached to the wooden beams (frame) using staples or small nails. The insulation should be laid with an overlap of up to 10 cm. The joints are connected with adhesive tape or tape. On top of the beams and the hydro-barrier, rails 50 mm wide and 30 mm thick are sewn horizontally. Such a rack frame is necessary to ventilate the space between the vapor barrier and the outer cladding. If normal air ventilation is created, the drying of condensate and moisture occurs much more efficiently. At the bottom of the frame, a finely mesh metal mesh is applied to prevent the appearance of various bugs and insects inside the insulation system. The next is the outer cladding.
At the moment, the choice of facing materials is quite extensive. You can choose a material for every taste and for every wallet. The main thing to think about is what functions should the outer cladding perform? If just decorating the walls is one moment, if you need to keep the logs of the walls from atmospheric influences and increase the insulating properties, this is another moment. But in both cases, there are two types of wall cladding. Wet, offering to use various types of plasters, such as “bark beetle”, “fur coat” and others. But, as stated above, experts do not recommend this method of wall decoration. Another method of cladding is dry, where the facade is sheathed with siding, plastic (clapboard), decorative stone or tiles, which not only adds beauty, but also additionally insulates the house.
To reduce heat loss, along with the walls, the foundation is insulated. You have carefully considered how to insulate a log house so that life in it will be pleasant for many years, while saving everything you need for green housing. As practice shows, house insulation allows you to save up to 40% of the heat in the room. All this work and all these costs for insulation are necessary not only for the sake of comfort. With the current rise in the cost of energy resources, the relevance of insulating your home is increasingly becoming an urgent problem. When the house is warm and comfortable, it’s good, but when you don’t pay huge monthly fees for all this, it’s even better.
You cannot save on insulation. After all, the house is also a living being. As you are to him, so he is to you. The more and better you take care of him, the more warmth and comfort he gives you. You should always remember the saying: “The miser pays twice.” Otherwise, your savings now can turn into big problems and considerable waste tomorrow. Therefore, before starting the process of warming, you need to sit down and calmly calculate and think over everything, so that you do not make mistakes later.
If, for some reason, the process of warming with your own hands is not acceptable to you, you can contact qualified specialists or prestigious construction firms who can give you all the necessary recommendations for insulation work and perform these very works with high quality with a guarantee. Good luck in this difficult but noble cause! published by econet.ru
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